Tasmanian Aborigines and Their Descendents - Mollison and Everitt

THE TASMANIAN ABORIGINES AND THEIR DESCENDANTS (Chronology' Genealogies and Social Data) PART 2 By Bill Mollison and Coral Everitt December, 1978 Appendix 1 Kangaroo Island (S.A.) Genealogies NB I copied the foollowing from the above book back in 2008. The sealers of Bass Strait were not confined merely to the Furneaux Group, they made frequent journeys as far afield as King George's Sound (W.A.), New Zealand and the islands off the southern Australian coast. In many instances Tasmanian Aboriginal women were taken on these journeys and by the 1820's sealers were permanent residents of Kangaroo Is. (S.A.) Several women are mentioned in Plomley (1966) as having been abducted to Kangaroo Island by sealers, and as far as can be ascertained from that record, the following women were living there in the 1830's: 1. Dranetunnerminner, with James Allen. 'Long 'un'. From St Patricks Head, Cape Portland tribe. 2. Woreterleepoodyeninner, with James Allen. Ringarooma tribe. 3. Lowhenunne, sister to Truganini, abducted by 'Black' Baker, Bruny Island tribe. 4. Makekerledede, sister to Truganini, abducted by Baker, with William Cooper. (Maggerleedee, Rommernagee) = Sal. Bruny Island tribe. 'Sally Cooper'. 5. Wortermodeyer (Duke). Port Dalrymple tribe. 6. Woorarteyer, Cape Portland (Mussel Roe) Tribe, with 'George' = 'Piebald' = 'Fireball' = George Bates (spent all his life on Kangaroo Island). 7. Werlangennertuerarer (Marmeis), Cape Portland Tribe. 8. Reenangninghe (Kotatenner, Puere, Pucre, Tuercy), Georges R. Tribe. With William Dutton, who later went to Portland, Vic. 9. Teekooltermee, Georges R. tribe. Was with Black Jack Williams. Daughter of Mannalargenna, chief of the Oyster Bay tribe; mother was Tanleeboneyer, of the Little Swanport Tribe. 10. Rarnapperlittener, Georges R. tribe. With 'Duncan'. (Duncan Bell). Later killed by stock-keepers in north-east Tasmania. Her son and Bell killed at Cape Portland by tribesmen or sealers. 11. Tinnermuck (Towser), Port Dalrymple Tribe, with 'Little' West. 12. Karnteeltenner (Little Buck), Cape Portland Tribe. 13. Poolrenner, mother of Bullrer. With 'Young SCott. 14. Mieyer (Fan), abducted by Baker, with Black Jack Williams. 15. Larooner. (Tortured by Allan) at American Wharf Lagoon. Several of these women returned to the Furneaux Group, others have not been traced and as some Aboriginal families in South Australia claim both Tasmanian and mainland ancestors it is possible that some women joined The Aboriginal tribes of the Mainland. Tindale* only lists four Tasmanian women as permanent residents of Kangaroo Is. (one of these lived until 1888). The 1841 census for Kangaroo Island provides the following figures: 1. At Kingscote, English settlers 58 2. 'Islanders' - alias runaway convicts settled in different parts of the island 19 3. Native women and children living with these men 13 No names are given and of the 13 women and children it is probable that some are from Australian (Mainland) tribes. 1* Tindale , N.B. 'Tasmanian Aborigines on Kangaroo Island, South Australia', Records of South Australian Museum Vo1.6, pp.29-37 (1937). ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Kangaroo Island Families Family Name Letter Code Allen AL- Baker BK- Bates BA- Bathurst BT- Brown BN- Cooper CO- Dutton DT- Gamble GA- Hepthernet HE- Kirby KI- Meredith MI- Thomas TH- Wallen WA- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ALLEN FAMILY AL - James Allen married a) Dranetunneminnener Sealer. Nt. St. Patricks Head (Tas.) Kangaroo Is. alias 'Long 'un' married b) Woreterleepoodyenninner Nt. Ringarooma (Tas.) also alias 'Long 'un' but usually this refers to a) First Filial Generation (F1) Child to a) or b) .1 Nanny, born ca. 1822, died 20. 2.1836 (see St. Johns C. of E. Launceston Burial No. 577 'Nanny Allen, died in the hospital of the female house of correction, aged 14 on 20 Feb 1836. A native of Kangaroo Is.'). No other data on issue or fate of women. Little is known of Allen. A James Allan ran from the Mary Ann in Sydney 1816, and afterwards was allowed to clear as a free sailor. He joined the Jupiter in Sydney 1817 for Hobart. (Cumpston, Kangaroo Is. p.44). Plomley (Supplement 1971) says Allen came free to colony in the Mary Anne. Therefore possibly same man. A James Allen sailed on the General Gates from Sydney 21 Dec. 1820 for New Zealand, Tahiti, Canton, Batavia, Kangaroo Is., Hobart and finally back to New Zealand 1822. At Kangaroo Is. the ship picked up a native woman who was found in 1824 by the Samuel at Stewart Is. New Zealand with James Stewart and a child two years old. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BAKER. FAMILY BK - John Baker married a) Lowhenunne possible alias 'Moorina' 'man of colour' Nt. Bruny Is. Probably an American negro. Sister to Truganini Sealer. to Anderson (?); to Hepthernet (see HE-) Bass Strait. (see Note 1) married b) Makekerledede (=Maggerleede, Rommernagge) alias Sall Nt. Bruny Is. Sister to Truganini to Meredith (?); to Brown (?) (see BR-); to Cooper married c) Murrerninghe alias Kit Nt. Bruny Is. to Hepthernet married d) Mary (Tas.) Brought from Bass strait to Bruny Is. establishment where she died Nov. 1829 married e) Plonoopinner (=Plorenernoopperner, Wortabowigee, Planobeenna), alias Fanny Hardwicke Nt. Port Dalrymple (See Note 2) Issue? Possibly a boy to d) or e) for when Mary and Fanny were brought to the Bruny Is. Establishment on 10 Oct 1829 they were accompanied by a little boy. Note No. 1 Baker abducted the three women from Bruny Is. about 1826. In 1829 he was arrested for this at George Town where he arrived accompanied by Mary and Fanny. He was sent to gaol in Hobart but was released in Sept. 1829 for lack of evidence. Note No. 2 Fanny Hardwicke 'a native child of about eleven years of age' was baptised by Rev. John Youl on 12 Jan. 1820. She then lived at Norfolk Plains in the household of Charles Browne Hardwicke (Plomley, p.105). After Baker's release from prison she accompanied him back to Launceston, 'she being a free subject and expressing strong desire to do so.' (G.A.R.) (see Plornley, pp.82-83). She was later at the Aboriginal Establishment F. I. Married 'Napoleon' (=Pevay, Tunnerminnerwait) with whom she went to Port Phillip 1839-1842. Jack Napoleon was executed there in 1842 for the murder of a sealer. Fanny returned and died sometime between 1851 and 1854. Note No. 3 Nothing more is known of Baker after 1829. Note No. 4 At William Lanne's funeral in Hobart in 1869 was Henry Whalley and an American 'Man of colour.' When Henry Whalley died in 1877 there is mention of his friend George Baker described as a Tasmanian (see WH-). Possibly a son of John Baker? Note No. 5 Mrs. Fudge to B.M. 1974. 'Said there was an Old Baker at Point McLeay (S.A.). There is also a Chris Baker said to be of negro descent. '(Therefore possibly also Tasmanian). ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BATES FAMILY BA - George Bates married a) Woorarter 30. 4.1800 - 8. 9.1995 Nt. Mussel Roe Tribe (Tas.) Sailor, Sealer alias 'Fireball' married b) Puss (Tas.) married c) Sally (Aust.) (+ shared a) and b) with Wallen or possibly had them for short time while Wallen away sealing) married d) Elizabeth (w.), born 1809 No data on issue. George Bates was nicknamed 'Fireball' because of his red hair and whiskers. He was born at Old St. Lukes London on 30 April 1800. At the age of eleven he joined the man-of-war Warrior and visited France, India and the Persian Gulf. In 1823 he joined the Commodore Hayes which brought convicts to Hobart. He was discharged at Sydney and in Oct. 1823 sailed in the Sally to Newcastle. He joined the Nereus in Sydney on 22 Jan. 1824. While this vessel was at K.I. he persuaded John Randall to accompany him ashore and try a hunters life on the island. Three days after they had deserted, they were approached by Wallen, Kirby and Everett who had run from their ship at Hog Bay a few weeks before. Kirby had an Aboriginal woman with him from V.D.L. Bates settled at Antechamber Bay, overlooking Backstairs Passage where he built a substantial dwelling. He lived by hunting and trading with visiting ships. Bates assisted in the search for Capt. Collett Barker who was killed by the Aborigines near the Murray mouth in 1831. With his ability to communicate with the Aborigines, Bates proved useful, and was recorded by the officer in charge as being a great help, and was paid 12 pounds for his services and the use of his whale boat. Wallen also was present and it seems at this time they took Sally from her tribe at Cape Jervis (see Wallen notes). In 1831 G.A.R. recorded 'Fireball!' with Woorarter. In 1836 the John Pirie arrived at K.I. carrying the first immigrant settlers and the officials of the South Australia Co. Bates helped with the building of huts and accompanied Colonel Light in his survey of the coast in the Rapid. Bates worked at loading ships at Port Adelaide and had a turn at the Bendigo gold diggings (Vic.), where he had little success. On his return to. K.I. he lived with his wife who had arrived in the colony in 1852. ('Elizabeth Bates admitted to Destitute Asylum 1870 age 61. Arrived South Australia per Calcutta 18 years ago. Her husband is on Kangaroo Is.'). In 1894 Bates was brought to Adelaide and lived in the Destitute Asylum until he died there on 8 Sept. 1895. His body was returned to K.I. and buried in the Penneshaw Cemetery. The stone reads ..... 'In memory of George Bates. Born at Old St. Lukes, London, April 30 1800. Died in Adelaide Sept 8 1895. An old colonist, and for 71 years a settler on Kangaroo Is., previous to which he served in H.M. Navy 1811 .....' Above notes compiled from: The Adelaide Advertiser Sept 9 1895. South Australian National Trust Newsletter December 1973. J. Cumpston, Kangaroo Island (Canberra 1970). Records of South Australia Destitute Asylum. (S.A. Archives). Tindale's Genealogies S.A. Volume, Sheet one lists :- Billy Bates m. Betty Bates Fullblood b.1840, d.1910 aged 70 years Kingston, S.A. Fullblood, Kingston, S.A. She later married John O'Keefe (fullblood of Millicent who died in 1920's) 'long after the death of Bates.' A Bates (aboriginal) lives at Midlands Junction and teaches boxing. (Mrs. Hansen to B.M. Jan 1974.) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BATHURST FAMILY BT - John Bathurst married women from Mainland, Port Lincoln, S.A. Sealer. American Black. Kangaroo Is. No data on issue. Associate of Anderson and Meredith. Made raids on tribes with these men and shot men from Port Lincoln tribe in 1835. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BROWN FAMILY BW - George Brown married a) Bumblefoot Sal / Big Sal. (Tas.) American black. ex Meredith (see ME-); later Cooper (see CO-) Whaler. Kangaroo Is. married b) 'a white emigrant girl' J. W. Bull. Early experiences of colonial life in South Australia. (1878) pp.6-7. George Brown, an American black 'had been engaged as headsman in one of the whaling companies. After the colonists arrived he left the island (i.e. Kangaroo Is.), and was engaged at the first occupation of Holdfast Bay.' He married an emigrant girl ..... 'and they left a family, who are now in respectable positions.' ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- COOPER FAMILY CO - William Cooper married a) Makekerledede (= Maggerleede, Rommernagge) Sealer. Nt. Bruny Is. (Tas.) Kangaroo Is. alias Sall b. ca. 1796 Sister to Truganini ex Baker married b) Bumblefoot Sal / Big Sal (Tas.) ex Meredith; ex Brown No data on issue. William Cooper sailed from Sydney for southern fishery on 10 June 1823, in the Alligator. In November 1824 he sailed from Sydney in the Nereus. In 1831 G.A.R. reported him on K.I. living with Maggerleede. In 1836 Capt. Hart recorded William Cooper at Nepean Bay; Point Marsden K.I. aged ca. 40. After Meredith died (see ME-) the Tasmanian woman known as Bumblefoot Sal was reported to go to Brown and then Cooper. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- DUTTON FAMILY DT - William Dutton married a) Renaninghe Kotaternner Sealer, Whaler, alias Puerre Sea-Captain, Farmer. Nt. Georges R. (Tas.) 11 AUG l811 - 19 JUL 1878. (See Note 2) Launceston, Portland (Vic.), married b) Kalloongoo Kangaroo Is. (S.A.), alias Sarah, Charlotte Kents Group, Bass strait. Port Lincoln (S.A.) (See Note 1) ex Johnson and Allen (See Notes 3-5) married c) a white woman? married d) Mary Saggers (w.) b. 6 MAY 1820 (same as c) above?) to a) No data on issue. to b) Sophia b. ca.1835/6 (See Note 4) to d) No issue. Adopted white children Ada and Edwin. (see Notes 6,7) Note No. 1 There is confusion over the true identity of William Dutton. This arises out of the statement by P Serle in his Dictionary of Australian Biography in the entry for Francis Stacker Dutton: 'One of his brothers, W.P. Dutton, engaged in sealing at Portland Bay between 1828 and 1838.' However, the Australian Dictionary of Biography Vol 1. states that there were four Dutton brothers - William Hampden, Frederick Hansborough, Francis Stacker and Pelham John Richard; none of whom were related to Captain William Dutton. John S.Cumpston agrees with the above, saying that William Dutton was not related to William Hampden Dutton. In an affidavit made in Feb. 1873, Dutton stated that he was born in Sydney on 31 Aug. 1811, and that about 1813 his parents went to live in Hobart and there he was brought up. In 1828 he joined the crew of the Madeira Packet (Capt. M'Meekan) on a sealing trip to King George's Sound. In Dec. he was landed among a boats crew at Portland Bay where they remained until Jan. 1829. Between 1829 and 1842, Dutton was employed by John Griffiths of Launceston. July 1829 - Landed again at Portland Bay from schooner Henry, staying till Jan. 1830. Jan 1830 - Rejoined the Henry and 'went away sealing.' March 1831 - Dutton landed at Portland Bay where he reoccupied his old house. Dec 1831 - Griffiths picked up Dutton in the Elizabeth. (Capt Hart). May 1832 - Griffiths, using the Henry, began whaling at K.I. and Dutton may have spent part of the year there. Nov 1832 - Dutton landed Portland Bay from Elizabeth. March 1833 - Dutton picked up by Hart in Elizabeth returning from K.I. to Launceston. 1833-1834 - Sent from Launceston in the Henry to establish a whale fishery. Very successful he returned there in 1834, when another station was set up by James Hewitt and Capt. James Kelly. Nov. 1834 - Edward Henty in the Thistle arrives at Portland Bay, greeted and assisted by Dutton. Feb. 1835 - Dutton appointed to the command of the Thistle sailing from Launceston to Portland Bay for the whaling. Dec. 1835 - Left Launceston as master of the Socrates. Headed west in search of sperm whales. Returned to Portland for winter whaling, 1836. Aug/Sept 1836- At Recherche Bay (V.D.L.). 1837/1838 - Similar routine i.e. Sperm whaling in summer, winter whaling at Portland, return to Recherche Aug/Sept. 1839/1840 - Appointed Capt. of Africaine. Visited whaling grounds of New Zealand. Oct. 1841 - Marries Mary Saggers, aged 20, at Evandale. Cumpston says 'She was his second wife'. Doesn't explain. 1842 - Master of the Essington, ran a regular service between Launceston, Portland and Port Fairy. 1843/1844 - Headsman of a whaling boat operation for the Hentys. Took the Lady Mary Pelham on a six month whaling voyage to New Zealand. Jun/Oct. 1845- Lady Mary Pelham whaling at Portland. Left for Hobart with a mixed cargo. 1846? - Returned to Portland. Took up 600 acres at Narrawong, at the mouth of the Surry River. They were gazetted in his name on 8 March 1850, and form the present parish of Bolwarra. 1866 - Kills his last whale in Portland Bay, bringing his total there to 100. 19 July 1878 - Died and buried at Narrawong. Above taken from Cumpston, J.S. Kangaroo Island (Canberra 1970). Cumpston, J.S. Entry for Dutton in Australian Dictionary of Biography Vol. 1. Plomley (1966) Appendix 7. Entry for Dutton. Note No. 2 In Robinson's journal April 1831 he reports Renaninghe living 'to the N/W with Bill Dutton.' As Dutton was at this time at Portland, it would seem that the N/W refers to Portland. In May 1832 Dutton was possibly in the Henry at K.I. and may have left Renaninghe there where she joined the mainland Aborigines. The clue to this is the genealogy of the Campbell family (S.A.) compiled by Tindale in 1938. (MS in Adelaide Museum). 1 .0 Piwinanke / Rewinganeke m. Renungi 1801 - 11 JAN 1876 1812 - 23 JAN 1877 Fullblood, Male Fullblood. Jaridekald Tribe (S.A.) (This name sounds familiar to that of Renaninghe) 1. Louisa 1833 - 8 NOV 1397 took name 2. Peter 1848 - 30 MAY 1912 Campbell 3. John 4. Peter 1831 - took name 5. Henry Gollan (Although the date of Peter's birth, 1831 would discount Renungi being Renaninghe, it must be remembered that these birth dates are only approx. guesses on part of missionaries who were not present at the time.) This family lived at Point McLeay (S.A.) and their descendents today claim Tasmanian descent. It is interesting to note that Tindale could give no details on Renungi's tribe. (In every case he noted this information if available.) Note No. 3 Dutton obtained Kalloongoo from the sealer William Johnson, who with James Allen, abducted her from the Port Lincoln area (S.A.). It is not known for sure when this took place. Robinson's Journal (ML A7032): 1 June 1837. A New Holland woman and her son have joined the settlement, gained from the sealers at Woody Is. She had been abandoned by a sealer who had gone to Launceston and married a white woman. Her name was Sarah and she came from opposite Kangaroo Is. - was forcibly taken from her country by a sealer named James Allen who is camping with another sealer Bill Johnson (this man was drowned subsequent to my visit to P.P.). She was conveyed to K.I. where she remained a considerable time until she was seized by Johnson and forced on board the schooner Henry, Griffith's owner and master, and brought to the Straits where Johnson sold her to Bill Dutton who has subsequently abandoned her. She had a child by Dutton - a girl which he took away with him. The woman states that at the time she was seized and borne from her country, Allen was guided to her encampment by two black fellows, her countrymen but not her tribesmen - they had been living with the sealers on the island. The black men came sneaking up and laid hold of her arm, the other women escaped. She had a child by Dutton and one by a Sydney black - a sealer - and this was the one she had with her. He is about 5 years of age. She did not wish to return to the sealers. Note No. 4 William and Sarah (an aboriginal) Dutton register the birth of Sophia. (St. Johns C. of E. Launceston Baptismal Register No. 1005.) Note No. 5 Kalloongoo was taken to the Flinders Is. establishment. She appears in the records as a 'New Hollander' and the mother of Johnny Franklin, also a 'New Hollander' - who is not to be confused with the Tasmanian boy Manoon (born 1830 alias John Franklin). No further data on the daughter Sarah. Note No. 6 Mary Saggers was the daughter of William Saggers and Mary Shea / Shey (widow) who married 13 April 1825. Their children were 1. Richard, born 9 Sep. 1818 2. Mary, born 6 May 1820 (from Marriage and baptismal registers, St. Johns C. of E. Launceston). Mary Saggers (aged 2O) was married to Dutton on 27 October 1841 in the schoolhouse at Evandale, near Launceston. His second marriage. (From Australian Dictionary of Biography Vol.1). Note No. 7 Cumpston writes 'Childless, Dutton adopted his niece Ada and newphew Edwin, children of Edwin McIntosh, a boatbuilder who was accidentally killed.' (A.D.B. Vol. 1 ). 'Mary survived Dutton by some years.' Note No. 8 Much remains to be known about Bill Dutton, Victoria's first householder. His camp at the Springs, Portland, is still much as it was, but new developments threaten this site (Joe Wiltshire to B.M. SEP 1975). Note No. 9 Mr. C.F. Kurtze at the museum, Portland, states that Dutton had no children from Mary Saggers, but that they adopted some. He speaks of Griffiths, Campbell, Thompkins (Tomlin?) and Mansfield as whalers there, with descendants in the area. His fathor says the loeal tribe was the 'BONE-E-DEET' or 'BONE-E-DICK' and that they went from Portland to Cavendish and for 30 miles inland, and about 36 miles over the Sth. Aus. border. He has many artefacts from allover Aust. - B.M. DEC 1973. A Johnny Dutton lived for years at Lake Condah (a former aboriginal reserve). He was a very big man. He would have been 40-50 years old when I was a boy of 9 (1887) i.e. Dutton b. ca.1840/50. He lived with an old lady later in life, on the Portland side of Lake Condah about 3 miles; near the McDonalds, Alberts, Jack Kings, Mrs. Conley, and us, the Taylors (Alex 'Cyril' Taylor to B.M. Sept. 1975). Chris Saunders says Johnny Dutton never had a family, 'he died an old batchelor' - to see Cecil Learmouth about him in Portland. 'Dutton was over 6 feet high, and a wiry man'. He had a hare-lip, but not, I think, a cleft palate (C.S. to B.M. Sept. 1975). Cecil Learmouth (92 Yrs. old) says Dutton worked on 'Ellangowan' (?) for years as a rabbiter. He knows nothing of his parents, doesn't remember any siblings, and doesn't know where Dutton died. Johnny Dutton lived at Lake Condah. His father was a sailor or whaler (Jim Rose to B.M. Sept. 1975). It is possible Johnny Dutton's father was John Thitton, head of the Granite Is. fishery, S.A. in 1839. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- GAMBLE FAMILY GA - Robert Gamble married a) Known to have had aboriginal alias Gambell, Gemble wives. Not known if Tasmanian Sealer King Is., Kents Group married b) or Australian Bald Is. (W.A.) Known to have had children. Children living on Bald Is. 1842. No other data. Possible descendents are in Western Australia. Gamble told G.A.R. that he came to the colony a free man in the ship Surrey (Capt. Raine), (probably sometime between 1814 and 1823). He was employed in sealing 1827-1830, spending 10 months on King Is. where he was an associate of Dobson. Ca. 1830 he shot the woman Murrerninghe (alias Kit) at Kents Group, Bass Strait. In 1830 he was employed by W. Hugh McGuinness on board the schooner Carlton. In 1831 he was employed at the Flinders Is. establishment as coxswain for the government schooner Charlotte. He was later dismissed by G.A.R. when his past treatment of Aboriginal women was discovered. (see TSA CSO 1/317, 1/323, p. 7) Gamble was charged with murder of two women and sent to Hobart July 1831. No data on result. Next mention of Gamble - Perth Gazette 7 Oct. 1842. Article on sealers on the southern Australian coast. 'One of the sealers named 'Bob Gemble' (sic.) originally from V.D.L. used to reside there (Bald Is. 20 miles east of King George's Sound) with his black gins and his children for months together, and for aught I know, he may be either there, or somewhere in the Archipelago to this day. This man seals on his own account, and his wives perform the part of the boats crew. He belonged to Anderson's party, and first let out the fatal secret respecting his murder .....' ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- HEPTHERNET FAMILY HE - Hepthernet married a) Murrerninghe Sealer Nt. Brunt Is. (Tas.) Kents Group, Bass Strait alias Kit ex Baker Murrerninghe was abducted by Baker from Bruny Is. ca. 1826. She went to Hepthernet and was later shot by Gamble at Kents Group. Nothing known of Hepthernet. Possibly he went under another name. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- KIRBY FAMILY KI - James Kirby married a) Dinah (Tas.) Sealer. Kangaroo Is. No data on issue. When Bates and Randall deserted the Nereus in 1824 they met James Kirby, Henry Wallen and James Everett who had run from their ship a few weeks earlier. Kirby had with him a woman whom he had brought over from V.D.L. Two years later in 1826 Kirby and a Tasmanian woman named Dinah were at King George's Sound (W.A.). They were taken to Sydney in the Ann 1827. Nothing more is known of Kirby or Dinah. In the Sth. Aust. 1841 census John Kirby (35-50 yrs.}, Richard (21-35), Wm. (21-35), John Jnr. (21-35) and Kate (14-21) listed, living in the hills near Victor Harbour. No mother mentioned. Kirby Hill is the highest point in the area. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MEREDITH FAMllY ME - George Meredith married a) Bumblefoot Sal / Big Sal (Tas.) Grazier, Whaler, Trader, to Brown, Cooper Sealer Swanport (Tas.) married b) Abducted women from Port Phillip Kangaroo Is. (S.A.). who were taken to Bass Strait, 1806 - ca. 1835 ancestors of Maynard, Bligh, (Thomas), Briggs married c) Abducted women from Mainland, S.A. No data on issue. George Meredith Snr. settled on the east coast of Tasmania in 1821. He built a 50 ton vessel at Great Swan Port and engaged in whaling on the east coast. In July 1826 his son George was granted 1,000 acres of the land adjoining his father's. It seems that George jnr. took over the shipping interests of the family being the Captain of the Black Swan that wrecked at Kangaroo Is. (off Flinders Is.) in 1830. In 1833 the schooner Defiance, Captain Meredith, left Sydney laden with provisions for trading with the sealers on the islands of the south coast of Australia, and was bound to King George's Sound and Swan River. On board was a passenger - James Manning. The Defiance was wrecked near Howe's Is. (eastern end of Bass Strait) and Manning, Meredith, a native woman and the Dutchman Jacob Seaman left in a whaleboat for Kangaroo Is. (the remainder of the crew - six men - went to Sydney in another whaleboat). Meredith did not reach K.I. until Feb. 1834 where he decided to stay; building a house at Western River for himself and his native wife. (Manning later made his way to Albany, W.A. via Anderson and Middle Is. and reported the above information to the Perth Gazette 3 Oct 1835). Most reports concerning Meredith state that he ran off with the sealing boat. The above information seems to be more precise. There is also confusion over the identity of Sal, and the story of Meredith's death. It seems certain that Sal was the woman on board the Defiance and definitely Tasmanian (some say she was taken from mainland by Meredith and that was why he was killed). J.W. Bull wrote: 'George Meredith ..... had the misfortune to wreck his vessel on Howes Is., and escaped in a whaleboat with a Dutchman, who was known afterwards as Jacob Seaman. They had with them, on landing on the island, a Tasmanian black woman, called Sal, who had lost half of one of her feet when young by sleeping with them too near the fire ..... He had procured from the mainland two native boys whom he was training to be of great use to him in his sealing trips ..... On one voyage he landed on that part of the coast now known as Yankalila, and whilst there encamped Meredith was killed by his black boys ..... The boat, boys and woman joined the local Encounter Bay tribe ..... Sal eventually managed to escape to the island (K.I.) and joined George Brown and later Cooper.' (Bull 'Life in South Australia' 1878, p.7). Tindale writing of Bumblefoot Sal (1938): ''Fine-looking big black', bumblefooted, had lost two toes by burning in a fire; her hair was 'wonderfully curly as in Suke and Betty'. Old accounts state that she had dark skin and woolly hair. She is supposed to have died somewhere near the waterfall at Middle R.' (K.I.). The exact date of Meredith's death is unknown. Plomley says ca. 1832 but this is too early. Meredith is not mentioned by Capt. Hart in his list of settlers in 1836. So it would seem Meredith died late 1834 or 1835. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- THOMAS FAMILY TH - Nathaniel Wallace Thomas was one of the Tasmanian sealers who came to Kangaroo Island, South Aust. According to a great-grandson Les Simpson, Thomas had been pilot in the Derwent, knew the captains of the sealing and whaling vessels, and heard of Kangaroo Island from them. He made a run for it in the pilot boat, bringing at least 3 black women and other sealers to S.A. He first landed in the Victor Harbour area, later crossing to Antechamber Bay where he settled, and lived off the land and the skins he could trade for necesseties with passing boats. His Tasmanian wife bore him four children, 3 girls and a boy, the latter shipping out on a vessel - no trace to the present, and the girls marrying on K.I. His convict record and pilot record may be traceable - apparently a privileged prisioner when pilot. Of his daughters, only two are, at present, known to have lived to marry, Mary Anne and Anna Jane. Nat Thomas' will in Penneshaw museum leaves his estate 'to be enjoyed by my wife' Sophia Thomas and Nathaniel Thomas Simpson - signed 'Nathaniel Wallace Thomas'. Also, in the same museum, there are photos of Mrs Seymour and Joe Seymour Jnr. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1.0 Nathaniel Wallace Thomas, married Sophia (Tas.) Nathaniel was a Sealer, Pilot, Settler. Resident K.I.. Born 1803, died 1879. See Note 1. Sophia - Tindale says her name was Betty or Old Bet. Died 1878. (Some sources give four daughters, some four daughters and a son. Mr Ted Bates (Adelaide) aged 92 years (Sept. 1975) says only two daughters married, although there may have been others who died young. The boy shipped out on a vessel - no trace of him since.) 1.1 Mary Ann Thomas, born ca. 1823 / 1832, died 9. 9.1913, married William / Joe? Seymour in 1850 See Notes 1-4.William / Joe worked on K.I. lighthouse 1.1.1 Joe Seymour married a Mrs Buckley (nee Ebert) Lived Penneshaw. Her second marriage. Had from first marriage Hannah, Kate, Maria, Nell, Rachel, Annie and a son. Not followed here. (see Note 8.). Mary Ann Seymour married Frank Abel, no issue Frank was the foreman of K.I. brickworks and agent for wheatgrowers on Island. Annie Seymour married Arthur Harry Arthur owned iceworks at Kingscote, K.I. Mavis Annie 1.1.2 Emma Seymour, born 1853 married Hank? Barrett / Barratt Lived S/E of South Australia. Gilbert Barrett, married, had issue Went to live in S.E. of S. Aust. Thomas Barrett married May Melville Oliver Barrett, never married, was sickly, no issue Beatrice Barrett married man who worked for the Dept. of Roads. Clara Barrett married man who was Mayor of Henley and Grange, Adelaide 1.1.3 Jane Seymour, never married. Lived with mother on K.I. Jane fell from a table when a child and was thereafter an invalid. 1.2 Anna Jane Thomas married Thomas Simpson ca. 1859. See Notes 5,6,7. Thomas was ex Lincolnshire, Postman K.I., and died 1903. (Children not necessarily in order. Probably complete. All deceased at 1975.) 1.2.1 Nathaniel Thomas Simpson, born 8.12.1860, marriage broke up early, no issue 1.2.2 William Simpson, never married? Went away up north. Later returned to K.I. where he died. See Penneshaw records. 1.2.3 Thomas Simpson, married (Tom went away up north. Returned to K.I. Died there.) Son, train driver at Port Augusta. 1.2.4 Joseph Simpson, no data 1.2.5 Stephen Simpson married Hannah Buttley Lived Penneshaw. Both died K.I. Hannah ex K.I. Daughter of Joe Seymour's wife by first marriage. Both died K.I. Daisy Simpson married William George Simpson (no relation Residence 128 Chirnside St., West Footscray, Melbourne, Vic. William Stephen Harold Simpson, never married, no issue, died 1975 Charles Simpson married Doris Bush, no issue Residence 88 George St., Thebarton, Adelaide Leslie Victor Simpson, born 9. 9.1910, married Kathleen Edwards in 1942 K.I., no issue Residence 105 Blight St., Adelaide, S.A. Edward Simpson married Maisie a widow, no issue Lives Melbourne. Two daughters from Maisie's previous marriage. Stanford Anzac Simpson married Anne Residence 54 Frederick St., Welland, Adelaide Annette Joyce Barbara Fay Stephen Stanford William 'Billy' Joyce Simpson, died as a child, aged 2 - 3 years 1.2.6 Stanford Wallace 'Tiger' Simpson, never married, served WW1, no issue 1.2.7 Jack Simpson, never married, no issue. 1.2.8 Mary Simpson married Thomas Waller Lives in a home, Adelaide. William Waller, died 1975 Adelaide Sea Captain with Adelaide Steamship Co., lives at Kilkenny William Kathleen Mary Daphne Walter Alfred Waller, never married, no issue, died 1975 Adelaide Norman Waller Adrian (Possibly others) Jack Amy Waller Joe ? Another daughter ? 1.2.9 Ginny Simpson married Harry Davies, a saddler No issue 1.2.10 Hannah Simpson, went to Western Australia. Had at least one child. (Ted Bates to B.M. 1975). 1.3 Son (said to have left K.I. aged ca. 16 years and not heard from since.) Note No. 1 (2) = Pole-cat = Old Bet. Brought from Van Diemen Land about 1819 by Robert Wallen. She lived lived with Nat Thomas at Antechamber ,Bay and had a son and two daughters. These children are mentioned in a newspaper article ('South Australia Register', 25th September, 1844): 'Nat Thomas has ...... a native woman who catches wallaby for him. By her he has three very interesting little children, who combine the intelligence of the white with the activity of the native.' The son went to sea and was not heard of again. The daughters both had children of whom five were still living in 1936. There are also numbers of octoroon descendants. Detailed genealogies have been gathered as a basis for a study of the descendants of the two families. Her grandson Joseph, living on Kangaroo Island, states that Betty died in 1878 and was buried at Antechamber Bay; the approximate site of her grave is known to be in a small field opposite the point where the main road turns abruptly northwest away from the banks of Chapman River (Section 75, Hundred of Dudley). Unfortunately the surface indications have been obliterated accidentally by ploughing. Tolmer (1882) mentions Old Bet as a Tasmanian and one of her daughters, Mary, as the child of Nat Thomas. Mary was studied and described by Berry (1907). Her photograph is also published by Hallack (1905, p.43). Mary's previously mentioned 1894 application to the Government for sustenance was approved, and in return for the surrender of her property she was allowed rations from tlle Aborigines Office until her death on the 9th September, 1913. A few days after her death her eldest daughter Emma applied for permission to retain the use of the cottage property until it was sold by the Government. Emma was then 60 years of age. Her brother Joseph wrote to the Surveyor-General from Penneshaw on August 31, 1914 asking for particulars regarding the 'property lately occupied by my late mother Mary'. The other daughter of Betty is stated to have married a fair-haired man from Lincolnshire, and three of her four sons and several grandchildren survive. (Tindale: Records of S.A. Museum). Note No. 2 Joe Seymour Snr. came from Adelaide, was one-time manager of the Sth. Aust. Co. on K.I. He was sent down by Colonel Light to build the Cape Willoughby lighthouse. He is buried at Creek Bay, near the woolstore. Note No. 3 Hallack (1905) writes: 'The oldest identity and best known on all the island is Mrs. William Seymour, a half-caste. Oldest ..... without fear of contradiction, for she was born in the Hundred of Dudley, and is now in her seventy-second year'. (viz. b.1823). 'Her husband a manager of the S.A. Co., her father the sealer Nat Thomas, her mother Tasmanian, now buried at Cape Borda. Mrs. Seymour educated by Mrs. Cawthorne (lighthouse keeper's wife), has one son, two daughters and several grandchildren ..... ' 'Thomas lived, and died, at Antechamber Bay; where he is buried. The first-born daughter of Nat Thomas (b.1832, but see above) said to be the first known half-caste child born on K.I. was married to Wm. Seymour at a house in Antechamber Bay in 1850, by the visiting Archdeacon Morse. Note No. 4 Docket 280/1894 S.A. Destitute Board. 'Mary Seymour half-caste Tasmanian born on K.I. and is now over 60 years, and has no income but owns a stone cottage and an allotment of land on which the cottage stands worth 50 pounds. These people (i.e. Mary and daughter Jane - imbecile) have no children to help them. Mrs. seymour is a widow of many years standing.' Note No. 5 Thomas Simpson was, for 23 years, mail keeper at Bates Hill, K.I. He is said to have been a chainman in Col. Lights' Survey Team. Note No. 6 His son Nathaniel, was known as 'Tiger'. Is the son of Tommy Simpson who came to Kangaroo Is. from Lincolnshire in 1880 and was postmaster at Penneshaw for 26 years. Mrs. Tom Simpson was the daughter of Nat. Thomas, one of the very earliest members of the sealers' community. Tiger served in the First World War. He has in his possession an old Bible, printed in 1835, and inscribed 'George Bates, from S. Stephens, Esqu., Kingscote October 2, 1836'. (George Bates being also one of the earliest settlers and Samuel Stephens the manager of the South Aust. Co. who arrived at Kangaroo Island in the Duke of York, 1836). Note No. 7 The Cyclopedia of South Aust. notes: Nathaniel Thomas 7 Simpson b. 8 DEC. 1860 at Hog Bay, eldest child of the late Thomas Simpson, d. 1903, ex Lincolnshire. His grandfather the late Nathaniel Wallace Thomas of Antechamher Bay, d.1879. Note No. 8 Miss Ebert was the dr. of a German Missionary (Ebert) who married a Miss Charlesworth. This was her second marriage. The first, to a Mr. Buckley resulted in 3 children (Nell, Hannah, Jim). Miss Ebert was the only dr. of that marriage. After Ebert's death, his widow married Wm. Murray, and subsequently Mr. Davidson, a survivor of the wreck of the Osmanti, and a widower with four children (Mr. McKenzie, Penneshaw). Note No. 9 Notes from Mr. Ted Bates (?) Sept. 1975. Phone interview to B.M. Thomas knew Captains of ships. He decided to get away in the Pilot's boat. He brought three women with him. They landed at Victor Harbour. Through the women he met other blacks and sailed from Victor Harbour to Antechamber Bay. There he stopped and killed kangaroo and wallaby. They also used to catch whales. I can remember whales going through. At Penneshaw Bay we used to dig up whale bones. There was a fellow named King Walley dumped by Americans at Kingscote with pigs and seed. Ship never came back. He thought he was the only man. George Bates was at Penneshaw off a survey boat. He got in a dinghy and got into Christmas Cove and pulled dinghy up in scrub. They found boat and left him there. Old George Bates decided to walk to Penneshaw. When he got to Cygnet R. he hears a noise and these two men meet him. (Thomas and Whalley). When people first went there (K.I.) King Whaley had all the land - they filled him with rum and took him to Hog Bay and gave him a bit of land and a few pounds and whiskey for the rest of his land. Mr. Ted Bates. Lives 8 Victoria Drive, Modbury, S.A. Mr. Bates has written an account of K.I. and given it to his children to be released after his death. He is aged about 92, and has been to Hobart to research historical records. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- WALLEN FAMILY WA - Henry Wallen married a) Puss (Tas.) (?) alias Whalley, Warlan (see Notes 1,2) Walker Sealer married b) Bet alias Betty, Old Bet and Polecat. (Tas.). Kangaroo Is. To Thomas. See Note 2. ca. 1786/1794 - 9. 5.1856/1858 married c) Sally (mainlander) alias 'Princess Con', Sally Walker ?; See Note 3. Children to a) or b) .1 Henry, died 6. 8.1877, See Note 4. Henry Wallen reached Sydney on January 27 1815 as a crew member of the Marquis of Wellington. On September 7 1817 he joined the Henrietta Packet to Hobart where he joined the Sophia (Capt. James Kelly) which sailed for New Zealand in December 1817. The Sophia's crew included Kelly, Dutton and a John Griffiths, two of the crew were killed by Maoris (see Bowden's biography of Capt. Kelly). The Sophia returned from New Zealand and made a voyage to Kangaroo Is. in Feb. 1820. It is not known if Wallen was a crew member, but it seems likely that he was and left the ship there. (See Cumpston, Kangaroo Island. pp.53-54). Hallack (1905) says he arrived from Tasmania in 1819, bringing with him two aboriginal women named Puss and Bet. Wallen lived on the 'Three Wells' river (now the Cygnet R.) at a place called 'The Farm'. On July 13 1837 he was visited by Dr. Leigh who described his place .... 'We reached the wigwam called by the delightful name of Governor Wallen's farmhouse .... a square about ten feet long by five, the sides resembling a letter A, composed of the bark of a tree ... (He had moved here after being evicted from his former residence by Stephens arrival in 1836 and forced to sell his hundred fowls and pigs to the South Aust. Co.) .... That man had saved enough by his labour and sales of kangaroo skins, to give his son a good education and trade at Hobart Town .... Wallen from a happy industrious king of the island, became a ruined outcast, and a wandering drunkard .....' Wallen died while visiting Adelaide in May 1856, aged about 62. Apparently there was an inquest into his death. (See South Australia Register May 9 1856). Note No. 1 Notes on the women: Mrs. A. Watts 'Memories of Early Days in South Australia' (1882) described the loss two members of the Africaine in 1836 at K.I. Old Whalley (sic.) and his wives were employed to search for the missing persons ..... 'Whalley and his two black wives ..... 'Puss' and 'Polecat' were the first inhabitants, it 'Was said, having made the voyage in an open boat from Van Diemen's Land some twenty years previous to the settlement being formed.' Note No. 2 Tindale, N. Records of the South Australian Museum (1938) says Bet was brought from V.D.L. by Wallen and lived with Thomas and had children to him (describes Seymour family etc.) but this seems to be incorrect (see Thomas notes). He also mentions Puss but says there is 'little remembrance of Puss on the island.' It is possible that Puss was from the mainland for in the Adelaide Advertiser 27 Dec 1882 Bates described raids on the women at Cape Jervis in April 1830 ... 'They were set at liberty on reaching Hog Bay (K.I.), where ... One girl, whom Bates named 'Puss' from her propensity to scratch the face of her owner when in a rage, lived for years afterwards at Hog Bay.' Note No. 3 Clues to identity of Sally: Sally described as 'a native woman of the mainland opposite K.I.' was taken by sealers on the Governor Brisbane to King George's Sound (W.A.) in late 1826. She was sent with the sealers (and Tasmanian women Dinah and Mooney) to Sydney in 1827. It seems she was back at K.I. in 1831. Dr. Robert Davis in the search for Capt. Barker in May 1831 described Sally: 'A female of the tribe spoke English tolerably well, and was recognised as having been at King George's Sound in a sealing vessel about three years ago.' She accompanied Bates and Wallen in the search and at Lake Alexandrina were met by her father (named Condoy) and uncle who told them of Barker's death. The Adelaide Advertiser 27 Dec 1886 described Bates' version of the search: 'Bates formed a daring plan for obtaining some information on the subject (i.e. Barker's whereabouts / fate) .... In the darkness of the night he and his mates surprised a camp of natives ..... A young girl of about 16 bolted straight into Warley's (sic.) arms .... from her they learnt that Capt. Barker had been speared .... the black girl was claimed by Warley as his property and lived with him at Hog Bay.' A passenger on board the Africaine at K.I. in 1836 wrote: 'This morning a boat containing some white men and one black woman arrived ... the aboriginal woman's countenance was pleasing though perfectly black, and her hair not woolly but long and straight .... She spoke English with a proper accent and almost with fluency. Her height about 5'6' and her age about 25 ..... We learnt later that she was 'Princess Cont', daughter of 'King Con', a chief of one of the native tribes, and that her father was at that time on K.I.' (Hope, P. (ed.) 'A Collection of Journals, letters and Extracts from Contemporary Publications titled Voyage of the Africaine.' (1968) p. 96 ). Tindale (1938): Described a Sally Walker. 'This woman was well known as a native of the adjoining mainland. She lived at Hog Bay and had no association with the Tasmanian women.' Note No. 4 Henry Wallen Jnr. was educated in Hobart. It seems he took the name Whalley. Later joined whaling ships. In 1869 William Lanne, the last Tasmanian male, died. He had been a whaler aboard the Runnymede. According to M. Casson the pall bearers at his funeral were Capt. Hall and three coloured seamen - Henry Whalley (a half-caste from K.I.), a Sandwich Islander and an American. All crew members of Runnymede. (MS Adelaide Museum). The next reference to Whalley is his death at Macquarie Is. in 1877. He was a member of the Bencleugh on a whaling expedition. Also on board was a George Baker (see BK-). A crew member John Thompson described Whalley as 'a singular man; his father was the captain of an American whaler, and his mother was one of the very last of the Tasmanian natives, closely related to King Billy, the last of them all .... He had a kindly and cheerful disposition, and was a great favourite with all on board, being possessed of great courage and self reliance'. Whalley died when the anchor vessel dragged anchor and wrecked. He was buried in the wreck, his body covered with earth and snow. (See Cumpston, Macquarie Island, 1968). No data exists as to other children of Henry Wallen Snr. No data as to Henry Jnr. being married or children. Note No. 5 Henry Wallen Snr should not be confused with the James Waller of Rapid Bay (S.A.) who, on 25 March 1859, wrote to Surveyor-General asking to buy the adjacent land of George Solomon who had been granted the land by virtue of his marriage to an Aboriginal woman named Rathoola. They had four children and now she had died Waller thought the land would have to be vacated. (The two eldest children were sent to Poonindie mission, the youngest were kept by Solomon). The Cyclopedia of South Aust. notes: Henry Waller, second son of James Waller of Rapid Bay, married Emma Jane Miller, and had 14 children. 13 children survive and live on K.I. Henry and Emma were married 1855. It would seem this family are not related to Henry Wallen.