Correspondence in Relation to Aboriginals


National Archives of Australia, Darwin Office Series F68 Item A8 Correspondence in Relation to Aboriginals NB This is not complete Copyright P J Mackett, 2013 26. 2.1940 To Northern Territory Administration Alice Springs Mentions Ruby, Tim, Rose, Left Hand peter 21. 5.1940 From Alice Springs to DNA Brisbane Sandy White, a Queensland Aboriginal, is employed as a tracker at Barrow Creek. 30.12.1937 From Alice Springs to Constable Muldoon Barrow Creek Lionel Brown has paid money to the credit of his late aboriginal employee Ned Charcoal. 29. 1.1941 From Aborigines Department Adelaide to Alice Springs Report from Ernabella regarding the alleged murder of Lalili, a South Australian native. 2. 2.1941 To Aborigines Protection Board Adelaide Alleged murder of Lolly Legs otherwise Lullalitchie by Herbert James Kitto and Patrick Owen De Conlay, both of Mt Cavanagh Station. 17. 5.1940 From Police Station Finke to Alice Springs Mentions Tracker Mick Doolan. 18. 4.1940 From Lynda Vale Station to Police Finke Natives sheep killing are Wongurr Kenty, Big Boomerang, Little Boomerang, .... ...., Warra m....., Inatpar and twoothers. Also .... . 9. 5.1940 From Lynda Vale Station to Police Finke Further trouble with blacks. Mentions Gordon Perkins and Jack Pettit. 6. 5.1940 From Lynda Vale Station to Police Finke Mentions half-caste Gordon Perkins being attacked by natives including Billy Goat Mick, Boomerang, Percy. Also mentions Wonguree, Kenty and Boomerang. Also Jack Pettit. 24.10.1940 From Ernabella Mission to Alice Springs An old man, Fred, and his son, Tommie, are being sent to Alice Springs for medical treatment. 1.10.1940 From Alice Springs to Police Arltunga Female abo's Nellie and Marjorie to be sent to Alice Springs. 22. 9.1940 From Police Arltunga to Alice Springs Paddy and his daughters Nellie and Marjorie at the ration camp. Paddy is ill and awaiting transport to Hospital. Nellie and Marjorie are sisters to the native Wallaby who was recently convicted of assault in Alice Springs. Nellie is about 19 years old and Marjorie is about 14 years old. 31.10.1940 From Police Barrow Creek to Alice Springs Attached are statements taken from Aboriginals Bean-tree and Alice. Lubra Eileen has suddenly disappeared from the district. I am informed that with her mother she has gone to hatches Creek. Attached is letter from Mrs Donald Ross stating she had made a mistake about Donald. Wants the matter dropped. 31.10.1940 From Lorna Ross at Neutral Junction Stn to Police Barrow Creek Letter from Mrs Donald Ross stating she had made a mistake about Donald. Wants the matter dropped. 31.10.1940 Various people mentioned in Lorna's complaint against Donald. Bean-tree Donald Ross Alice Hayes, daughter of George Hayes H/C and Mompey F/B, was recently living with a boy named Ben but now living with Bean-tree Eileen until recently kept company with her sister Weeda but is now running around with Alice. Weeda recently had a child. Tracker Sandy White and his lubra Miriam 6. 9.1937 From / To Police Alice Springs Missionary Weston of Tennant Creek picked up aboriginals Major, Paddy and another. 22. 2.1934 From Police Alice Springs to CPA Alice Springs Tommy Madden and another inmate of the Half-caste Institution in Alice Springs were found in town at 9.30pm. 17. 1.1934 From Police Alice Springs to T Cleary Banka Banka Stn Return of Ned's saddle in good repair. 22. 8.1933 From Innamincka Stn to Protector Alice Springs Forms signed by Duncan Tennant as requested. Undated Handwritten note See Ted Dixon re Milton Liddle. 17. 3.1933 From Police Alice Springs to CPA Adelaide Re Trust Fund Money Owing Amy Ford, c/o Mrs Scammell, The Hut, Blinman S.A. Annie Giles, c/o Mrs Martin, Martinburgh, Mount Barker S.A. Undated Form of Agreement with Aboriginal or Half-caste Edward Dixon agreement with Milton Liddle for 12 months starting 1. 1.1930 31. 8.1933 From Police to Administrator Stuart Re Treatment of Aborigines at Aileron Station Various statements mention Blossom, Louie, Laughing Jack, Jimmy, Paddy, Long Tom and Cubberdee a shepherd. Mentions L Scrymgeour who worked for about 3 years at Aileron and dismissed because he caused trouble with the aborigines. Now lives with a full blood aboriginal and she has two half-caste children to him. 17. 8.1933 From Half-caste Institution Alice Springs to Police Alice Springs Eileen Briscoe H/C is being returned from Charlotte Waters. 20. 7.1933 From Mtd Const Lynch, Granites to Police Stuart Murder of Aboriginal Tommy by Aboriginal Billy at Tanami. Billy believed to be mamber of the party that killed Stewart years ago. 7. 5.1929 To Department Home Affairs Canberra Payment to Trust Fund for Amy Ford. 28. 3.1933 From / To Police Stuart Actor Mahomet states that Pompey (Aboriginal) was working for Ahmeed Khan of Maree for two years. Also mentions Ackoar Khan. 9. 8.1933 From / To Police Stuart Mr Gill, owner of Doctors Stones Station, informed that George, a 3/4C Aboriginal child, had died there on 6. 8.1933. He was about 4 years of age and son of Ruby, a half-caste woman who died at Gill's about one month ago, and Aboriginal Mick. 3. 8.1933 Recognizance Ernest Eugene Kramer to return Aboriginal Andy within 12 months. Made at Henbury Stn. 29. 7.1933 From Police Stuart to Administrator Stuart Enquiry from CPA about two girls brought to Adelaide by the late Dr Basedow Girls were Chickinna from Hermannsburg and Andella Minnie from Horseshoe Bend and brought to Adelaide about 13 years ago. No Agreements. They are now both over 20 years of age. 2. 7.1933 From half-caste Institution Stuart to Police Stuart Re jacky King @ Jacky Cooper 3/4C To Sgt Lovegrove Stuart This Aboriginal has for some months now been apparently looking for a wife, and as he is a three quarter Aboriginal, he has received no encouragement to come to this Institution. Maybe you will remember my mentioning him to you some months ago as becoming more or less a nuisance, also that he was trying to get Melba Palmer to marry him. He came up here today with Dido Cooper, Norman Bray and Jean Smith (Mrs Dutchy) and later on Emily Gordon arrived from Mrs D D Smiths. Emily Gordon informed Mrs Freeman that Jacky Cooper or King was worring her to marry him, also gave Mrs Freeman his letter proposing marriage, which is now in my possession. This girl does NOT want anything to do with him, nor does Melba Palmer, anyway Emily Gordon is far too young to contemplate marrying. I have told this young man to keep away from all these young girls, and I now hear he is going to try for Topsy Glynn, at Mrs Glass, or Myrtle McDonald. This boy has been taking Emily, Topsy and Myrtle to Mr Kramers church, and coming home with them. Admittedly these girls are three quarter black as well, but they are far too good for this man, and at present too young to marry. (hand written - They could marry Half-Castes) I do not consider that it is the thing for a man of this description to be worrying these gorls, and should you agree with me, I would be pleased if you would watch out to see that he does not have anything more to do with them. He apparently lives on 'his means' as I have not heard of him working since he came from the South to the Alice. When Dido Cooper was at 'The Jay' he was always writing to her for money. I may also mention that he endeavoured to get a wife from the Mission. He would be a good deal better off if he endeavoured to get some work to do out of the Township. He is living with Stormy Campbell. (Handwritten - I also hear that this man has left a native woman and child down South, with whom he was living. G K Freeman Superintendent, Half-caste Institution 19. 6.1933 From Mrs C O Daenke Mypolonga to Mr Lovegrove Re Maggie Plenty's freedom. Was 21 years on 28th February. 10. 6.1933 From Protector of Aboriginals Alice Springs to Meidad of Alice Spring, Hawker You are hereby granted authority to remove the following Aboriginals in your employment as a Camel Hawker, from Alice Springs to the Barclay Tablelands and return - namely Billy and Willie. 11. 5.1933 From CPA Adelaide to CPA Stuart Apart from thieving behaviour of Joan Turner is satisfactory. 18. 3.1933 Report on Joan Turner Employed by Miss A M Meth of Victoria Street Henly Beach Age 13 years, religion Congregational. A good home and the child seems happy and contented and kindly treated by the family. 8. 8.1933 From Police Barrow Creek to Police Alice Springs Hetty Tillmouth who has been employed by Mrs Muldoon will be leaving here tomorrow, accompanied by Miss Diana Underwood, for Alice Springs. Hetty will report to the Superintendent of the Half-caste Home. 17. 5.1933 Receipt for goods received by Archie (Abo) from Underwood Bros. store, Alice Springs 19. 4.1933 From Police Innamincka Station Duncan Tennant was employed on Cowarie Station. If he is over 21 years of age he may apply for his freedom. 24. 3.1933 From Mt Peake Station to Alice Springs Wages for Tommy Brawn. .1933 Telegram from Horseshoe Bend Dick at Maryvale with prisioner's lubras. Prisioners tracks on Palmer Creek 100 miles west of here. 17. 2.1933 Telegram to Sgt Lovegrove Reported Conway again working at Hotel 25. 1.1933 Telegram Report incorrect. Alick Conway 3/4 Aboriginal aged about nineteen was employed Kilgariff around store hotel and attending horses. 8. 3.1933 From Insepctor-General of Hospitals Office Adealide to Alice Springs Re Aboriginal Peter, Mental Defective He was transported to the Enfield receiving House, South Australia on June 1932. 1. 3.1933 Police Station Stuart Statement by Ruby alias Num-bala. Mentions Jack, her deceased husband Fred Davis, murdered Jack 9. 2.1933 From Police Barrow Creek to Police Stuart Sending Aboriginal Mick to Alice Springs for medical examination. Possibly affected by venereal disease. 6. 2.1933 Telegram from Henly Beach S.A. to Alice Springs Would you allow me to get exemption from school for last six months Joan Turner's school time. 17. 4.1932 From Mr Downing Gordon Downs Station W.A. Peter and Dick, who are working here, came to the station early in 1929 for work. R B Stafford's complaint about them being forced to stay here is false. 26.12.1932 From Maryvale Station to Police Alice Springs A niger known as Jimmy Gilbert who was with Mr W H Smith the drover states that he (the niger) has an issue of clothes due to him. Jimmy Gilbert states he was to get this issue at Christmas but as he is working for us he was unable to collect the goods from you at Alice Springs. 8.12.1932 Telegram from Alice Springs to W F Hartley Lister House North terrace Adelaide Permission granted return Topsey care responsible party. 23. 9.1937 From Police Hatches Creek to Alice Springs Leslie not entitled to wages from Mr L Bailey. 12. 1.1943 From Alice Springs to Alice Springs Aboriginal Archie arrested on 31.12.1942 for larceny. NB. The following is written as it appears in the documents. 30. 6.1932 To Chief Protector of Aboriginals Alice Springs Quarterly Return ending 30. 6.1932 Depot Alice Springs Date Names Remarks 4. 4 6 short Ration Rice children Blind W. & Baby From Bon Springs 9. 4 Moulta & Eraka From Hbg Mission 9 old folks From Owen Springs 19. 4 7 old folks & sick Medical attention 24. 4 Sunday no ration Given by Drs perm 25. 4 10 woman call Vaseline & other M 8 m & W. call Medical & Ration 28. 4 Missed Ration Rice children 2. 5 5 going West 4. 5 2 sick woman Medical help 9. 5 3 woman sick Medical help 16. 5 4 m & w sick Medical help 17. 5 7 children 26. 5 5 woman Medical help 30. 5 6 from B. Springs rice for Children 1. 6 3 woman 1 man 8. 6 6 sick Call 15. 6 3 sick Call 16. 6 Victoria R, Mick with injured Leg 23. 6 3 Woman sick 27. 6 Joe & Ronald 28. 6 Kate Reda & Co 30. 6 5 sick Callers Moulta & Charlie 28.11.1933 From Superintendent of Police Darwin to Sgt Lovegrove Alice Springs Arrange transport for three half-caste children from Tennants Creek to Alice Springs, namely Jack, 5 yrs Lorna, 3 yrs John Bull, 5 yrs The mothers of these children are Topsy (Yubanillie) and Kily (Threeanpanillie). Note added by Sgt Lovegrove - also transported were H/C female aged 6 yrs, mother Topsy Amy H/C female aged 3 yrs, mother Rosy 15. 6.1932 From Donald Campbell Mt Peake to Deputy Protector Alice Springs Ivy Brown has given every satisfaction. 8. 6.1932 From CPA Adelaide to CPA Alice Springs Cheque for Elsie Raggitt, half-caste girl from Alice Springs in the employ of Mrs K C Kenney. 15. 7.1932 Statement by D Cole of Tempe Downs signed at Hermannsburg. On saturday June 20 my wife (nee Clara Cameron) gave birth to a little girl. The health of the baby at birth appeared normal. It was born at Tempe Downs. About a week after the birth of the child the mother took ill with a severe cold, a kind of influenza. Two days later the baby also took ill with cold from which it never recovered. It died on saturday July 2nd. It was interred by me the following morning. I reported the death to Dr Brown of Alice Springs. We did all we could to try to save its life. We intended to take it to the Mission, but it was too sick to be moved per camels. 23. 5.1932 To Deputy Chief Protector of Aborigines Alice Springs Distribution of Blankets, Galatea, Shirt and Pants Depot Alice Springs 1 Walberara K. 2 Caroline, new born infant 3 Naljerinye P. 4 Leulbmara K. 5 J. Nalala 6 J. Gnunarinye 7 P. Iwunyaka 8 Blind Dick 9 C. Tebetarinye 10 A. Motoka 11 L. Quitumba 12 Iwukera Charlie 13 George Nancy, with infant 14 Nancy Kurka, with child 15 Lizzy Alalora 16 Lielka M. 17 Urigita P. 18 Topea and child 19 Witchedy Tom 19 Lilly Nackara 20 Tory Ungara 21 J. Kunga 22 Tims Ruby, widow with 3 children 23 J. Lamb 25 Cary 26 Ungwera Magie 27 J. Rolta 28 Andy Ndoraletjal 29 Lotty Billys S. 30 Dolly Blind 31 Anelia 32 Wulatja J. 33 Maia, 3 children 34 Jinnie H/C, with infant 35 Packhorse G. 36 Port Augasta J. 37 Billy Alea 38 Jackara Cripple 39 Ngurabaia 40 Standly W.S. 41 Wagon Jack 42 Tom Brown W.S. 43 Burke H/C 44 L. Bob 45 H. margarinye 46 Larry 47 Wheeler 48 ?fg. George 49 J. Njala 50 A. Gwalurgeraka 51 Witchedy Tom No 2 52 J. Tjilpa 53 J. Jalka 54 Hc Mick, sick 55 Frank Half Blind 56 Jack Pony 57 Fany Quieir 58 Monake 59 Lady Nunagata, blind 60 Wungara 61 J. Rolta 62 Biddy Andulla 63 Topsy Aleumba 64 Malipe 65 Anelia 66 Antia Anty 67 L. Quietumba 68 L. Nalaluliga 69 J. Aratata 70 H/C Wombia, w/sick Husband 71 Jimm Aramga 72 Nelly Urknanteuka 73 Polly Uluqarinte 74 Terarinye J. (in ink Cockaljara) 75 Short Bob (in ink ......ye) 76 Res, Mick (in ink Lulu) 77 Kinto Sergeant J C Lovegrove entrusted me with 34 Blankets 17 Shirts 12 pr Pants the which I distributed as stated above, the Galatea issued is from my local Depot, the Natives were well pleased with these nessesarys & the Mayority have gone Bush on Walkabout, Quite happy; I am Sir Yours faithfully Ernest E Kramer honrary Protector of Aborigines Missionary Aborigines Friends Assn. 14. 4.1932 Quarterly Return Ending 31. 3.1932 Depot Alice Springs Depot Alice Springs Ernest E Kramer, hon Protector A.F.A. Sir, herewith I furnish return of Rations etc issued during the Quater Date Names Remarks 1. 1 Sandy 2. 1 Lamb, and Fany Condis etc Wallis J. T.B. case Rita w/ child Birth 1 girl Tnata & Njala 4. 1 Lamb, Fany & J. Going Bush 13 Woman Arranged with 7 Men Special Sgt Lovegrove Jinnie & Larry C.M. & Pills 8. 1 Teralgaia & child 9. 1 Antaia 10. 1 4 old & sick from Junction Waterhole Undoolya Polly Kitty & 2 children husband Mick died, at A.S. 15. 1 Motoka & Lady Liniment & C.M. 16. 1 Fany 17. 1 Utnea & Lotty & Tilly Lamb & Terarinyee Camped at Junction 18. 1 Fany go Bush Lady Blind Teralgaia & Ruby sick Coopertown A? Jack & Allen sick Coopertown 19. 1 Kang. B. & Jinnie Convalescent from Bush Kate & J. Lamb 25. 1 Reda, Wallis & Bruno From Junction Medical Purposes for Coughmixtures Tulinya, Emuna, sick Marie E. & Ruby from the South RLY. L. 26. 1 Lamb & Utnea Charlie & Lady sick give Med. 27. 1 Loty, Fany & Tjalo Wombia, Ato & Molly 28. 1 short B. & Wotaua H/C Alex & Lamb sick in Camp 29. 1 Lilly Randa Cripple 31. 1 Kate Reda Mcoll Micky Sick touch of Sun 3. 2 woman old no rations received 9. 2 Billy A. & Jack T. J. Angaia & L. blind 10. 2 Jinnie Rolta A. Motoka 15. 2 Weeler & Tnatata Lady & Minnie & C. 16. 2 Untnea & Mirtle one going B. Ck. S. Bob & Terarinye 19. 2 Teralgaia 20. 2 Lotty & Jinnie st. from & Utnea, Cakatjara Bon Springs Leulbmara L. & Gnarinye & Ltargnarinye do 24. 2 Rita w/ 4 children Husband in Gaol 5 old women sickly weak Bob & Wombia & child 2. 3 J. Terarenye from Bon Spr. Kubitje J. Fany & Maladay w/baby 1R1 thread J. Lamb & Gunataka Antaia A. & Fany Q. 8. 3 Lamb & Gunataka bl. 11. 3 Bob, Rosy, Wungaratta from Bon Spr. 14. 3 19 woman & old children mostly no Tea & Sg. 21. 5 5 woman & 2 children Moulta & Eraka S. Bob hungry from Hbg Miss. 25. 3 7 old woman 4minus Flour R. 30. 3 5 old men & 1 sick Boy Tjacala died 7 old woman Omitted in February A/C 1. 2 Wallis J. & S. Bob Wallis died T.B. B. Sp. 5 old woman & sick 4 woman fr. Undoolya 3. 2 6 woman Camp hungry 3 men one sick During the 3 Months I had 168 Callers for medical Helps & distributed free bottles & Tins, also other necessary Remedy, besides the faithfull dispensing of those Benefits provided by YOU, as Salts, Pills, C-Oil, Eye Water, Eucalyptus & Vaseline. Deaths Shepherd Mick died in Januarym was buried by Natives Wallis J. died in February T.B. was buried by Natives B. Springs Tjacala Mick died in March T.B. was Buried i/4by me Well Sinkers Rations 4. 1.1932 Burke & Helpers Paddy paid off 11. 1.1932 Weekly Ration 18. 1.1932 Weekly Ration 25. 1.1932 Weekly Ration 1. 2.1932 Weekly Ration 8. 2.1932 Weekly Ration Harry Forrester leave 15. 2.1932 Weekly Ration Staldley abo start 22. 2.1932 Weekly Ration 29. 2.1932 Weekly Ration 7. 3.1932 Weekly Ration 14. 3.1932 Weekly Ration 21. 3.1932 Weekly Ration 28. 3.1932 Weekly Ration Progress of Well Sinking ........... The two Half Caste men had a fight thus Harry Forrester left the work. Bruce Perkins was then in charge of the shooting & has now lowered the Shaft, with the help of 3 Aboriginals. ........... Blanketts Issue the writer volunteered to Assist the Department, to attend this issue; being in intimate knowledge of the scattered deserving cases, Actg Seargeant Muldoon handed me 90 Blankets on the 2/ April - I am herewith enclosing the Names of those who received also a list of further deserving applicants, which I shall take pleasure to distribute, when made available. Assuring You of my carefull attention to every detail, to the best of my Power I remail Sir, Yours Faithfully Ernest E Kramer 11. 4.1932 To deputy Chief Protector Alice Springs Sir, Please note List of Successfull Applicants for 90 Blanketts as distributed by me on Saturday the 2nd of April 1932. 1 Alea 2 Marg. Harry 3 Terar. J. 4 B. Angaia 5 S. Bob 6 Algna G. 7 W. Tom 8 J. Jeramba 9 J. Angna 10 Pony J. 11 Wagon J. 12 C. Amp 13 Cob E. 14 Tim Und. 15 C. Arara 16 Bumby 17 J. Njala 18 Nunag. 19 Lotty Bs. 20 Larry B. 21 M. Kaljerb. 22 Tnatata 23 J. Tjaka 24 P. Mac. 25 J. Arata 26 Moulta 27 eraka 28 B. Ngura 29 Kinto 30 Bruno 31 J. Tjilpa 32 L. Randa 33 J. Ulbarin 34 J. Injeral 35 Tulinye 36 B. Jaml 37 M. Rordar 38 G. Yeram 39 Jackara 40 Bugy Bugy 41 Nundy 42 Ingulla 43 B. Urabuny 44 Burke W.S. 45 T. Brown 46 Standly 47 Tims Ne. 48 J. Kumi 49 Cooper 50 Rose C. 51 Utnea 52 Pungina 53 Nielja 54 Putuga 55 L. Alea 56 Mora L. 57 Ulmara 58 L. Tankarin 59 F. Quiei 60 S. Anga. 61 J. Kanggar 62 N. Ararka 63 Mary Ilur. 64 Tangar M. 65 R. Apma 66 Kintora 67 S. Angarin 68 J. Lamb 69 Cockatjarr 70 J. Wotaua 71 R. Quirun. 72 N. Quie 73 J. Njia 74 P. Angnar. 75 Ivy 76 R. Wotaua 77 A. Anty 78 T. Brd 79 R. Jantg. 80 Y. Ungwal. 81 K. Liener 82 C. Undola 83 Wombia 84 P. Ung 85 P. Yakoba 86 Nabatuka 87 Lulu 88 M. Tumma 89 Mabel C. 90 Luritja J. Further Applicants are as under, 1 Caroline 2 Walbeara K. 3 Nalyerinye 4 Leulbmara 5 J. Nalala 6 J. Gnunarinye 7 P. Iwunjaka 8 Tielgna 9 Aldinga J.? 10 Blind Dick 11 C. Tebetarinye 12 Mortaka 13 L. Quitumba 14 Iwurkna C. 15 Eliza ? 16 Nancy Kurka 17 Nancy G.P. 18 L. Alaora 19 Mbitjiguta? 20 Lielka Owemn 21 Urigita P. 22 J. Rolta 23 Mbugjim 24 Topea 25 Amara M. 26 om. R. Kamara 27 W. Tom 28 L. Nackara 29 Kangaruh 30 Tanara T. 31 Tanara T. 32 A. Lumbarin 33 Rub Tangar 34 T. Nugara 35 Kathelin K. 36 K. Illurka 37 M. Bungart? 38 J. Kunga 39 Cary 40 Ungwera M. 41 Monaka 4 ch. 42 Tory H/C 43 Jean Colly w / baby 44 Tommy Colly 45 Mick Abel 46 J. Jackara Birth in Camp A Half Caste girl who has grown up in the Camp, the Youngest daughter of Moraia Collie H/C by the name of Jean Collie aged 17 has given birth to a Boy on thursday the 5th of April, this Girl is being given in marriage to one Fullblood Aboriginal names Paddy Stuart with whom she claimed to have lived for some time, this was arranged by the Mother and Foster Father under the Native Code. Yours Faithfully Ernest E Kramer Hon. Prot. 6. 8.1932 From United Aborigines Mission Bonney Well to Protector of Aborigines Sister Annie ... has three half caste children in her care. Leah Cumming 1/2 sister to Dolly Cumming now in the Bungalow. She is 10 years old as far as can be told. Polly Wagenshaw is a girl of 12 years and 8 months according to those who know her. Aleck Simpson a boy of 6 years old. Also mentions Molly, a full blood girl married to a young man on Mr Curtis Station and her two younger sisters. Also Johnnie a full blood boy who has gone to Tennant Creek to his brother. 29. 8.1932 From Police Station Stuart to M C cameron Barrow Creek Frank Butler is en route to Bonney Well to take delivery of cattle whick will be overlanded to Todmorden Station S.A.. he has in his employ two aboriginals Button and Bunganna.
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